The USS Cairo was an Excelsior class cruiser that was in service with Starfleet from the mid-to-late 24th century
In 2369, it was under the command of Captain Edward Jellico, who was temporarily transferred to command the USS Enterprise-D for a special diplomatic mission to the Cardassian border. Ensign Seff O'Rourke was serving aboard her as a shuttle pilot at this time. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part I")
The Cairo was deployed to defend the Federation system Minos Korva when it was threatened by a potential Cardassian attack. Following the peaceful conclusion of the crisis, Captain Jellico returned to his command on the Cairo. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part II")
During the Dominion War, the Cairo was commanded by Captain Leslie Wong, and assigned to patrol the Romulan Neutral Zone in 2374. The ship was believed to have been ambushed and destroyed by Dominion forces who had crossed Romulan space to attack the Cairo. (DS9: "In the Pale Moonlight")
A Steamrunner class vessel bore the name by 2377.